24 нояб. 2011 г.

Пользовательские переменныые в MySQL

You can store a value in a user-defined variable in one statement
and then refer to it later in another statement. This enables you
to pass values from one statement to another.
User-defined variables are
. That is, a user variable defined
by one client cannot be seen or used by other clients. All
variables for a given client connection are automatically freed
when that client exits.

User variables are written as
@var_name, where the
variable name var_name consists of
alphanumeric characters, “.”,
_”, and
$”. A user variable name can
contain other characters if you quote it as a string or identifier
(for example, @'my-var',
@"my-var", or @`my-var`).

User variable names are not case sensitive in MySQL 5.0 and up,
but are case sensitive before MySQL 5.0.

One way to set a user-defined variable is by issuing a

SET @var_name = expr [, @var_name = expr] ...

For SET,
either = or
:= can be
used as the assignment operator.

You can also assign a value to a user variable in statements other
than SET. In
this case, the assignment operator must be
:= and not
= because
the latter is treated as the comparison operator
= in


mysql> SET @t1=1, @t2=2, @t3:=4;
mysql> SELECT @t1, @t2, @t3, @t4 := @t1+@t2+@t3;
| @t1  | @t2  | @t3  | @t4 := @t1+@t2+@t3 |
|    1 |    2 |    4 |                  7 | 
User variables can be assigned a value from a limited set of data
types: integer, decimal, floating-point, binary or nonbinary
string, or NULL value. Assignment of decimal
and real values does not preserve the precision or scale of the
value. A value of a type other than one of the permissible types
is converted to a permissible type. For example, a value having a
temporal or spatial data type is converted to a binary string.

If a user variable is assigned a nonbinary (character) string
value, it has the same character set and collation as the string.
The coercibility of user variables is implicit as of MySQL 5.0.3.
(This is the same coercibility as for table column values.)

Bit values assigned to user variables are treated as binary
strings. To assign a bit value as a number to a user variable, use
CAST() or +0:

mysql> SET @v1 = b'1000001';

mysql> SET @v2 = CAST(b'1000001' AS UNSIGNED), @v3 = b'1000001'+0;
mysql> SELECT @v1, @v2, @v3;
| @v1  | @v2  | @v3  |
| A    |   65 |   65 |
If the value of a user variable is selected in a result set, it is
returned to the client as a string.

If you refer to a variable that has not been initialized, it has a
value of NULL and a type of string.

User variables may be used in most contexts where expressions are
permitted. This does not currently include contexts that
explicitly require a literal value, such as in the
LIMIT clause of a
SELECT statement, or the
clause of a LOAD DATA statement.

As a general rule, you should never assign a value to a user
variable and read the value within the same statement. You might
get the results you expect, but this is not guaranteed. The order
of evaluation for expressions involving user variables is
undefined and may change based on the elements contained within a
given statement; in addition, this order is not guaranteed to be
the same between releases of the MySQL Server. In SELECT
@a, @a:=@a+1, ...
, you might think that MySQL will
evaluate @a first and then do an assignment
second. However, changing the statement (for example, by adding a
ORDER BY clause) may cause MySQL to select an
execution plan with a different order of evaluation.

Another issue with assigning a value to a variable and reading the
value within the same statement is that the default result type of
a variable is based on its type at the start of the statement. The
following example illustrates this:

mysql> SET @a='test';
mysql> SELECT @a,(@a:=20) FROM tbl_name;
For this SELECT statement, MySQL
reports to the client that column one is a string and converts all
accesses of @a to strings, even though @a is
set to a number for the second row. After the
SELECT statement executes,
@a is regarded as a number for the next

To avoid problems with this behavior, either do not assign a value
to and read the value of the same variable within a single
statement, or else set the variable to 0,
0.0, or '' to define its
type before you use it.

In a SELECT statement, each select
expression is evaluated only when sent to the client. This means
that in a HAVING, GROUP BY,
or ORDER BY clause, referring to a variable
that is assigned a value in the select expression list does
not work as expected:

mysql> SELECT (@aa:=id) AS a, (@aa+3) AS b FROM tbl_name HAVING b=5;
The reference to b in the
HAVING clause refers to an alias for an
expression in the select list that uses @aa.
This does not work as expected: @aa contains
the value of id from the previous selected row,
not from the current row.

User variables are intended to provide data values. They cannot be
used directly in an SQL statement as an identifier or as part of
an identifier, such as in contexts where a table or database name
is expected, or as a reserved word such as
SELECT. This is true even if the
variable is quoted, as shown in the following example:

mysql> SELECT c1 FROM t;
| c1 |
|  0 |
|  1 |
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> SET @col = "c1";
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

mysql> SELECT @col FROM t;

| @col |
| c1   |
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> SELECT `@col` FROM t;
ERROR 1054 (42S22): Unknown column '@col' in 'field list'

mysql> SET @col = "`c1`";
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

mysql> SELECT @col FROM t;
| @col |
| `c1` |
1 row in set (0.00 sec)
An exception to this principle that user variables cannot be used
to provide identifiers is that if you are constructing a string
for use as a prepared statement to be executed later. In this
case, user variables can be used to provide any part of the
statement. The following example illustrates how this can be done:

mysql> SET @c = "c1";
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

mysql> SET @s = CONCAT("SELECT ", @c, " FROM t");
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

mysql> PREPARE stmt FROM @s;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.04 sec)
Statement prepared

mysql> EXECUTE stmt;
| c1 |
|  0 |
|  1 |
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)


Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
See Section 12.5, “SQL Syntax for Prepared Statements”, for more

A similar technique can be used in application programs to
construct SQL statements using program variables, as shown here
using PHP 5:

  $mysqli = new mysqli("localhost", "user", "pass", "test");

  if( mysqli_connect_errno() )
    die("Connection failed: %s\n", mysqli_connect_error());

  $col = "c1";

  $query = "SELECT $col FROM t";

  $result = $mysqli->query($query);

  while($row = $result->fetch_assoc())
    echo "<p>" . $row["$col"] . "</p>\n";



Assembling an SQL statement in this fashion is sometimes known as
Dynamic SQL”.

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